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Kaluza-Klein Theory

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Christine Marie Egnatuk

Kaluza-Klein Theory attempts to unify electromagnetism and General Relativity
by adding an extra dimension. The fifth dimension is considered to be compact,
uncoupled and rolled into a circle at every point in space. Expanding
Einstein's field equations to 4+1 dimensions results in Einstein's equations
for gravity along with Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism. The split
in the Ricci Scalar of 4+1 dimensions between the classical General Relativity
in a vacuum and the Maxwell field equations is known as the "Kaluza-Klein miracle". The momentum in the fifth dimension is the electric charge of the particle. Since the fifth dimension is compact, charge must be quantized.