Why is the sky blue? Why is water wet? In seeking to understand natural phenomena as simply as possible, Physicists have made a remarkable discovery: whatever questions they ask, the answers ultimately involve the same elegant principles of energy and momentum, mass and charge. Physicists seek and study rhythms and patterns among natural phenomena, including those that are readily apparent (like the orbits of planets) and those that are apparent only to deep analysis and careful observation (like the quantum transitions of atoms). Abetted by the power of mathematics, they ultimately comprehend and express the fundamental regularities of the physical universe in uniquely human metaphors. In this way, the universe comes to know itself in human terms.

A Physics **major** provides a rigorous grounding in the
scientific process and a firm scientific understanding of the world.
It fosters critical thinking and provides broad practical training in
science and technology. It can lead to graduate study and basic
research (in a variety of disciplines), to stimulating jobs in
industry, or to challenging and rewarding careers in teaching. Our faculty are engaged in original research and our students are
drawn early into collaborative research projects with faculty.

Formally, the Physics **major** requires:

Physics 111 & 112 & 201 (3 semesters of introductory Physics)

Physics 202 & Physics 220 or 230 (2 semesters of skill courses)

Physics 301 & 302 & 304 (3 semesters of advanced Physics)

Physics 3XX (1 semester of advanced Physics elective)

Physics 401 (Junior Independent Study)

Physics 451 & 452 (Senior Independent Study thesis)

The Calculus Physics sequence Physics 111, 112 is a prerequisite for the selection of Physics as a major and is best taken the first year, although one can still complete the major if the sequence is taken the second year.

The Calculus sequence Math 111, 112 must be taken at least concurrently with the Calculus Physics sequence, although Math 107, 108 may substitute for Math 111.

Those students considering graduate study in Physics should also take Physics 350, Math 211, Chemistry 111, 112, and as many advanced Physics courses as can be scheduled.

Those students considering astronomy or astrophysics as a career should major in Physics and take Physics 104, 105, and 320.

For students interested in engineering, Physics is a natural basis for 3-2 engineering programs, which are described under Pre-Professional and Dual Degree Programs. However, such students must complete enough Physics in three years to complete the major in the fourth year, if necessary.

Physics 103, 104, 105, 107, and 108 do not count toward a Physics major (except by special permission of the department).

No student may receive credit for both Physics 107 and 111, or for both Physics 108 and 112.

*Advanced Placement*. A student may receive credit if
a score of 4 or 5 is obtained on any the following AP examinations:

Physics 1

Physics 2

Physics C - Mechanics

Physics C - Electricity and Magnetism

Students need to check with the chairperson of the department to determine whether they will receive one or two credits toward graduation and at what level they should begin their college Physics courses. The advanced placement policy of the College is explained in the section on Admission. Students who have taken a college level Physics course (other than Advanced Level or AP Exam) and would like to place beyond the first Physics course need to take a placement exam that the chairperson administers.

The laboratory and classroom components are closely integrated in Physics courses with a laboratory and must therefore be taken concurrently. The course grade and the laboratory grade will be identical and are based on performance in both components; the relative weight of the two components will be stated in each course syllabus.

Physics majors cannot use S/NC grading option for the required courses, and the department recommends they not use it for any course in Physics, Mathematics, or Chemistry.

Physics minors can use the S/NC grading option for no more than two of the required courses.

Only grades of C- or better are accepted for the major or minor.

**103. PHYSICS REVOLUTIONS
Designed for non-science majors, this course explores how Physics has revolutionized our understanding of the natural world. Revolutions include the unification of the terrestrial and the celestial in Newton's Mechanics; of electricity, magnetism and light in Maxwell's Electromagnetism; of space and time in Einstein's Theory of Relativity; of particles and waves in Quantum Mechanics. **Prerequisite: High school algebra. One course credit. Every second year. Spring.

**104. ASTRONOMY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM
In just one generation, space exploration has revolutionized our understanding of the solar system. Planets, moons, asteroids and comets have been transformed from obscure and remote objects with mythical names to remarkable and detailed real worlds. In this course, we will study the surprising new solar system that the Space Age continues to reveal. **Prerequisite: High school algebra and geometry. One course credit. Every year. Fall.

**105. ASTRONOMY OF STARS AND GALAXIES
The brilliant and sometimes fuzzy objects in the night sky are dynamic, volatile stars and gigantic galaxies. We will study the general properties of stars as well as how they evolve from birth to death. We will also study the shape and composition of galaxies and the ultimate fate of our universe. **Prerequisite: High school algebra and geometry. One course credit. Every year. Spring.

**107. ALGEBRA PHYSICS I
Mechanics, heat, wave motion and sound.** For students who do not intend to major in Physics. *Students who have completed one semester of calculus with a grade of C+ or better should take Physics 111.* Three hours plus laboratory per week. Prerequisite: High school algebra and trigonometry. One and one-fourth course credits. Every year. Fall.

**108. ALGEBRA PHYSICS II
Optics, electricity and magnetism, and atomic and nuclear Physics.** Prerequisite: Physics 107. Three hours plus laboratory. One and one-fourth course credits. Every year.
Spring.

**111. CALCULUS PHYSICS I
Quantitative development of classical mechanics and thermodynamics. **For students who intend to major in Physics or chemistry or attend a professional school. Corequisite: Mathematics 111 (or Mathematics 107, but the latter does not enable one to continue immediately with Physics 112). Three hours per week plus laboratory. One and one-fourth course credits. Every year. Fall.

**112. CALCULUS PHYSICS II
Quantitative development of classical electromagnetism and optics.** Prerequisite: Physics 111. Corequisite: Mathematics 112. Three hours per week plus laboratory. One and one-fourth course credits. Every year. Spring.

**201. MODERN PHYSICS
Space-time Physics (relativity, gravitation) and quantum physics (the microworld). **Prerequisite: Physics 112 (or Physics 108 with permission of the instructor). Three hours per week plus laboratory. One and one-fourth course credits. Every year. Fall.

**202. MATHEMATICAL METHODS FOR THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES
Introduces skills of differential equations, linear algebra, and Fourier analysis essential to the physical sciences and engineering. **Prerequisite: Physics 112, Mathematics 112, or permission of the instructor. One course credit. Every year. Spring.

**220. ELECTRONICS FOR SCIENTISTS
An introduction to the principles and applications of circuit components, operational amplifiers, oscillators, digital logic, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog, and an introduction to LabVIEW. **Prerequisite: Physics 108 or Physics 112 or permission of the instructor. Three hours plus one laboratory period per week. One and one-fourth course credit. Every second year. Fall.

**230. COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS
A project-based introduction to computer simulation that develops increasingly sophisticated numerical models of physical systems in parallel with proficiency in either a modern computer language like C++ or in computational software like Mathematica. **Corequisite: Physics 201 or permission of the instructor. Six hours of lecture-lab per week. One and one-fourth course credit. Every second year. Fall.

**301. MECHANICS
Viscous forces, harmonic motion, rigid bodies, gravitation and small oscillations in Newtonian mechanics, Lagrange and Hamilton formulations, computer simulation and numerical methods. **Prerequisites: Physics 111, Physics 202, Mathematics 212, or permission of the instructor. Three hours per week. One course credit. Every second year. Fall.

**302. THERMAL PHYSICS
Classical and quantum treatment of problems in thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. **Prerequisite: Physics 201. Three hours per week. One course credit. Every second year. Spring.

**304. ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
Introduction to classical field theory and Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism. **Prerequisite: Physics 112, Physics 202, Mathematics 212, or permission of the instructor. Three hours per week. One course credit. Every second year.

**305. PARTICLE PHYSICS
An introduction to the concepts and techniques of nuclear and elementary particle physics. **Prerequisite: Physics 201. Three hours per week. One course credit. Every third years.

**310. GENERAL RELATIVITY
A detailed introduction to relativistic gravity, gravity as spacetime curvature, the Einstein field equations, and geodesic motion. Applications include the perihelion precession of Mercury, the deflection of starlight by the sun, black holes, gravity waves, and the Big Bang expansion of the universe. **Prerequisite: Physics 201. Three hours per week. One course credit. Every third years.

**315. NONLINEAR DYNAMICS
An introduction to the study of systems described by nonlinear difference or differential equations using both qualitative and numerical techniques. Topics include stability and bifurcations, extreme sensitivity to initial conditions or chaos, strange attractors and fractals. ** Prerequisite: Physics 201. Three hours per week. One course credit. Every third years.

**320. ASTROPHYSICS
A quantitative introduction to astronomy and astrophysics. Topics include classical astronomy; stellar structure, stellar atmospheres, and stellar evolution; galactic structure, cosmology, and cosmogony. Emphasis will be on quantitative application of physical theory to astronomical phenomena. **Prerequisite: Physics 201. Three hours per week. One course credit. Every third year.

**325. CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS
An introduction to the Physics of solid and liquid matter and the relationship between fundamental atomic interactions and observable macroscopic properties. Topics include crystal structure, lattice vibrations, electronic properties, semiconductors, and mechanical properties. **Prerequisite: Physics 201. Three hours per week. One course credit. Every third years.

**330. MODERN OPTICS
An introductory course in the basic concepts, principles, and theories of modern optics including lasers. Topics include wave optics, light and matter interactions, basic laser principles, holography, and specific optical systems. **Prerequisite: Physics 201. Three hours per week. One course credit. Every third year.

**350. QUANTUM MECHANICS
A rigorous introduction to the formalism and interpretation of microworld Physics. Probability amplitudes, interference and superposition, identical particles and spin, 2-state systems, Schrodinger evolution, applications. **Prerequisites: Physics 201, Physics 202, Mathematics 212, or permission of the instructor. Three hours per week. One course credit. Every second year. Spring.

**399. SELECTED TOPICS
Advanced Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, and others offered when sufficient student interest is shown.**

**400. TUTORIAL**
Prerequisite: The approval of both the supervising faculty member and the chairperson is required prior to registration.

**401. INDEPENDENT STUDY
Laboratory investigations in Mechanics, Thermal Physics, Optics, Quantum, Electricity and Magnetism. Techniques of statistics and data analysis, library utilization, computer interfacing and simulation are explored. **Prerequisite: Physics 202 and one of the following: Physics 301, 302, or 304. One seminar hour per week plus two laboratories. Every year. Spring.

**410. INTERNSHIP
A structured, usually off-campus experience, in which a student extends classroom knowledge to a work position within a community, business, or governmental organization. Student interns work and learn under the joint guidance of a host organization supervisor and a College of Wooster mentor. The student must arrange the internship in advance through the appropriate department or program. No more than six internships, and a maximum of four Wooster course credits, will count toward graduation. The form for registering for an internship and the Internship Learning Plan are available in the office of the Registrar. ** Prerequisite: The approval of a College of Wooster mentor, department chair, the faculty adviser, and the Associate Dean for Experiential Learning is required. 1/4 to 4 course credits. S/NC course.

**451. SENIOR INDEPENDENT STUDY THESIS - SEMESTER ONE
The first semester of the Senior Independent Study project, in which each student engages in creative and independent research guided by a faculty mentor and which culminates in a thesis and an oral examination in the second semester. **Prerequisite: Physics 401.

**452. SENIOR INDEPENDENT STUDY THESIS - SEMESTER TWO
The second semester of the Senior Independent Study project, which culminates in the thesis and an oral examination. **Prerequisite: Physics 451.